Gas burner is a device to generate a flame to heat up products using a gaseous fuel such as acetylene, natural gas or propane. Some burners have an air inlet to mix the fuel gas with air to make a complete combustion. Acetylene is commonly used in combination with oxygen.
After the invention of the gas burner back in 1855, the consumption of fuel gases increased sharply. Fuel gases were used initially for lighting city streets; later other applications appeared. The various applications to which gas burners were put led to a variety of construction patterns and design principles. A distinction is made among diffusion, injector, double-line, combined, and gas-turbine burners. According to the pressure of the gas supplied to the burner they are classified as (1) low-pressure—up to 5 kilonewtons per square meter (kN/m2), or 0.05 kilogram-force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2); (2) medium-pressure—5-300 kN/m2, or 0.05-3.0 kgf/cm2; and (3) high-pressure—more than 300 kN/m2, or 3.0 kgf/cm2. Gas burners are also categorised by the method of burning: torch burners, in which there is partial and incomplete mixing of gas and air; and torchless burners, in which the preliminary mixing is complete.
The main components of gas burners are the mixer and the burner nozzle, which contains the stabilising device. The components are designed in accordance with the function and operating conditions of the gas burner. In diffusion gas burners, gas and air are fed into a combustion chamber, where they are mixed. Most diffusion gas burners are mounted on the walls of a firebox or furnace. So-called hearth gas burners which are placed inside the firebox, in its lower part, are widely used in boilers. Hearth gas burners consist of one or more gas-distribution tubes in which holes have been drilled. A tube with several holes is placed on the furnace grate or hearth in a slotted duct lined with fire brick. The required amount of air is fed through the refractory slotted duct. In such a device the combustion of the gas jets coming out of the holes in the tube begins in the refractory duct and ends inside the furnace. Hearth gas burners present low resistance to the passage of the gas; therefore they can operate without a forced blast. Diffusion gas burners typically have a more even temperature along the length of the combustion front. However, these burners require an increased coefficient of excess air in comparison with injection gas burners; they create lower heat stresses in the firebox and worse conditions for thorough combustion in the tail of the combustion front, which may result in incomplete combustion of the gas.
Diffusion gas burners are used in industrial furnaces and boilers where uniform temperature is needed along the length of the combustion front. In some processes diffusion gas burners are indispensable—for example, in glass-making furnaces, open-hearth furnaces, and other furnaces where the air used for combustion is heated to temperatures above the ignition temperature of the fuel gas and air. Diffusion gas burners are used successfully in certain types of hot-water boilers.
Combustion and Heating Systems is a reputable boiler & burner company and was established in Johannesburg, South Africa during 1990. The company’s reputation is still respected within the industry for over 27 years. We are a boiler and burner company that offers efficient, friendly and personal service. Our staff have many years of experience and knowledge to pass on to our customers.
Combustion and Heating Systems is a member of SAGA (South African Gas Association) with registered Gas Practitioners and can, therefore, install gas pipelines and issue COC’s when required. Here at Combustion and Heating Systems we supply, install, service and maintain heating equipment such as oil and gas burners, hot water boilers, heating systems and all the associated parts. In our Johannesburg store, we have one of the biggest stock holdings of package burners and spare parts in the country.